NORDEX WASTE MANAGEMENT is a generator, collector and processor of almost all raw and recycling materials.
By collecting and treating waste, we turn it into a ready-made material for re-sale, and recycle it in the form of various products, which are the following main types:
Paper has been known and widespread since ancient times and is perhaps the most used raw material.
It is used for writing, drawing, printing, packaging, cleaning and more. It is produced by pressing moist plant fibers containing cellulose. For the production of cellulose, the most commonly used material is wood pulp
of suitable wood species - with soft wood such as spruce, fir, pine, but other plant fibers can also be used - cotton, flax, hemp and rice straw. For the production of paper,
different types of wood from cultivated forests are used, which are mostly wood waste and can hardly be used for other purposes. The second important raw material for paper production is
recycled fibrous material obtained from paper waste and used cardboard. About 20% of the world's timber materials are used for paper production, which is associated with high water consumption - up to 1200 liters.
per kilogram and chemicals that are harmful to the environment. The energy consumption for the production of 1 kilogram of paper is 2.5 kWh. That is why more attention is paid to the possibilities of the secondary processing.
Nowadays, recycled paper is the most important raw material for most packaging and newspaper production because it helps protect forests and nature. Regardless of the type of material used for paper production,
it can be produced both manually and by machine. Over the years, the paper industry has been developed to serve the machine production, managing paper, cardboard and cardboard.
The paper consists mainly of cellulose, its fibers ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters. Whether the produced material will be classified as paper or as cardboard depends on the mass of 1 square meter and its purpose.
The indicative values for the classification are the following:
There is a variety of uncoated paper:
It in turn is:
Plastics are a large group of materials whose main component is synthetic or semi-synthetic organic polymers. Important for plastics is that their properties, such as ductility, hardness, elasticity, tensile strength, heat and chemical resistance, vary widely depending on the starting materials, production technology and additives included in their composition. Their easy processing allows the production of objects of different shapes, as well as thin fibers or foil. For these reasons, plastics find a variety of applications - such as packaging material, textiles, insulation, electrical insulation, pipes, flooring, as a component in paints, adhesives and cosmetics, in the supporting structures of machines, car tires and much more. Plastics are most often obtained by polymerization or polycondensation of monomers or copolymers, and the final material is usually petroleum.
The most commonly used methods for plastic production are:
Types of plastics, according to the method of processing are:
After the plastic waste is stored in the recycling plant, the plastic products are divided into types depending on their identity and chemical properties - they are sorted, baled and fed to the recycling plants, where they are washed and grounded into small pieces. The grounded plastic is then dried and melted. The melted substances pass through a sieve, from which granules are formed for subsequent use for the production of new plastic products.
Due to the relatively low production costs, ease of production, flexibility and watertightness, plastics are used in a huge and expanding range of products, from paper clips to spacecraft. They have already replaced many traditional materials, such as wood, stone, horn and bone, leather, paper, metal, glass, and ceramics.
This type of material is the most common thermoplastic polymer of the polyester family and is used in man-made fibers for clothing production, food and beverage packaging, thermoforming and in combination with glass fibers for engineering resins. Most of the world's PET production is for synthetic fibers (over 60%), with bottle production consuming about 30% of world production. In the textile production, PET is simply called polyester, while the acronym PET is most commonly used with packaging. Polyester accounts for about 18% of world polymer production and is the fourth most produced polymer after polyethylene, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Plastic bottles made of PET are widely used for soft drinks, beer, water, some types of detergents and more. The PET’s properties are suitable for the production of packaging used mainly in the food industry, as disposable packaging, and in the pharmaceutical industry - as drugs blisters.
PET packaging can be reused to make less quality products as well. In order to be reused for food packaging, they must be hydrolyzed to monomers, purified and then re-polymerized to PET. Globally, approximately 7.5 million tonnes of PET were collected in 2011. As of 2009, 3.4 million tonnes were used for fiber production, 500,000 tonnes for bottles, 500,000 tonnes for thermoforming, 200,000 tonnes for tapes and 100,000 tons for other applications.
Recycling levels of PET bottles worldwide:
This type of material is a thermoplastic polymer of ethylene and is the most common plastic. As of 2017, over 100 million tons of polyethylene are produced annually, which represents 34% of the global plastics market. It is mainly used for foil production, disposable bags, tubes and detergents packaging , pipes, bottles for sauces (ketchup, mayonnaise, etc). Polyethylene is produced from ethylene, which is extracted mainly from oil and natural gas, even though it can be obtained from renewable resources. If it is not recycled, the large scale usage of polyethylene makes it difficult for the waste management. Polyethylene does not biodegrade easily, and its combustion can lead to the release of harmful gaseous emissions.
Polyethylene products are one of the most recycled polymers, which can be divided into several main derivative groups:
This type of material is a thermoplastic polymer that has a wide range of applications. It is produced by chain polymerization of monomeric propylene. Polypropylene has high chemical resistance with characteristics similar to those of polyethylene, but is slightly harder and more resistant to heat. It is the second most produced plastic in the world (after Polyethylene) and is often used for packaging production. In 2013, the world market for Polypropylene amounted to about 55 million tons.
Polypropylene is very resistant to work with and it is widely used with production of goods which needs to meet the strength requirements. Products created from it include crates, chairs, tables, buckets, pipes, food containers, certain types of bottles, waste bins, etc. It is commonly used in the form of biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP). Its fibers are used to create a wide range of items, including transparent bags, ropes (sisal), carpets, rugs and mats for home use, and more.
This type of material is a polymer of vinyl chloride and is the third most produced type of plastic after Polyethylene and Polypropylene, with an annual production of about 40 million tons worldwide.
Polyvinyl chloride is usually mixed with various plasticizers, stabilizers, fillers, pigments and others, having extremely high chemical indicators of flexibility, strength, resistance to weather conditions, etc.
It is mainly used for the production of hard industrial materials (constructions, joinery, pipes, blinds), for soft products (flooring, artificial leather, gramophone records), as well as for electrical insulation products. The mechanical properties of rigid PVC are very good, and at the same time it is chemically resistant to acids, salts, bases, fats and alcohols, which makes it resistant to corrosion.
Nearly half of the world's annual production of PVC is used for the manufacture of pipes for municipal and industrial applications. Today PVC has almost completely replaced the use of cast iron, commonly used in the past.
In medicine, PVC is used for disposable storage vessels and tubes: blood or urine containers, catheters, cardiopulmonary bypass devices, hemodialysis kits and others. In Europe, the use of PVC for medical devices is about 85,000 tons per year. Almost one third of medical plastic products are made of PVC.
This type of material, also known as Polystyrene, is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon produced industrially from petroleum. At room temperature Polystyrene is a rigid thermoplastic with an amorphous structure, but it melts at a higher temperature and hardens again. Pure hard PS is a colorless flexible plastic with low flexibility, which can be cast into molds with fine details. It is inexpensive and is used for the production of children's constructors, plastic cutlery suitable for coloring in different colors. Sheet-produced polystyrene can be molded into inexpensive cups, plates, boxes, and other disposable items, especially when strength, durability, and heat resistance are less important. A thin layer of clear polystyrene is often used in infrared spectroscopy. Products made from PS are clothes hangers, stirrers for hot drinks, spools for winding wire, disposable packaging, etc.
The most common use of Polystyrene is as expanded polystyrene (EPS) - better known as Styrofoam with a fundamental application in construction as a thermal insulation product.
This type of material is well known for its high durability and strength, which makes it one of the most widely used technical plastics.
It is used mainly in the automotive industry - for dies, bushings, hoses, gears, rollers, etc., and in the textile industry - carpets, sportswear, etc.
Polyamides can be produced by extrusion or monomer casting, the most commonly used are PA6, РА6G, PA6+ MоS2, PA66 and PA66+GF.
Their main characteristics are high mechanical strength, temperature resistance, hardness, impact and wear resistance. Moreover the polymer has excellent characteristics, which makes it very specifically usable in the engineering industry.
This type of material is widely used and belongs to the group of thermoplastic polymers. Polycarbonate is a durable polymer with high resistance of external influences, it is a relatively lightweight and fireproof type of plastic that is easy to work with. Due to its good insulation and energy efficiency, it is a preferred product in construction, in the automotive industry, in electronics and others. It is used for optical glasses production, flat or curved glazing, electronic components, CDs, gallons, storage packaging, security components, as well as various parts in the car and aircraft industry.
This type of material is a simple, easy to process thermoplastic polymer. The most important mechanical properties of ABS are resistance, strength and excellent electrical insulation performance. Common techniques for ABS processing include turning, drilling, milling, sawing and cutting. ABS can be chemically attached to itself and other similar plastics, which distinguishes it from most other plastics. The light weight and ability of ABS to be die-cast and extruded make it useful in the production of products such as waste drainage systems, musical instruments (dictaphones, plastic piano keys, etc.), golf balls, components for car upholstery, car bumpers, bars, medical blood devices, electronic assemblies, headgear, shower systems parts, sanitary ware, buffer edges for furniture, luggage and protective bags, small kitchen appliances, toys and Lego games blocks, etc.
This type of material is an organic polymer consisting of sulfides bounded aromatic rings. Synthetic fibers and textiles derived from this polymer withstand chemical and thermal attack. PPS is used in the filter fabrics for coal boilers, paper felts, electrical insulation, film capacitors, special membranes, hoses, seals and packaging. Polyphenylene sulfide is an engineering plastic, often used today as a highly efficient thermoplastic. PPS can be molded, extruded or machined. In its pure solid form, it may have a white to light complexion. An easy way to identify the metal compound is by the metallic sound it emits on impact. PPS exhibits a number of specific properties such as: resistance to heat, acids, bases, bleaching, aging and abrasion. It is used in the automotive, aircraft and a number of other high-tech engineering industries.
This type of material is an engineering plastic part of the polyamide family, but with improved characteristics of chemical resistance, strength and hardness at high temperature, abrasion resistance, dimensional stability and low ability to absorb liquids and moisture. PPA can be modified with reinforcing agents such as glass fibers, hardeners and stabilizers. Different chemical compositions have been introduced for its modification. For example, resins are able to bind directly to elastomers and produce plastic-rubber composites. Polyphthalamide resins are injection molded in parts that are used in a wide variety of applications. In the automotive industry, they include fuel and cooling connections, rings and bushings, engine cab parts, connectors, fuel shut-off valves, coolant pumps, thermostat housings and LED headlights.
Other applications for PPA-based resins include gas pipes and pipelines for the oil industry (due to their ability to withstand high pressure), medical applications such as catheter tubes, personal hygiene toothbrushes, and hair brushes. PPAs are also used in sports equipment, shower valve housings, bushings and bearing pads in aircraft engines.
This type of material, also known as acrylic glass or plexiglass, is a transparent thermoplastic, often used in the form of a sheet - as a light or breakable alternative to glass.
PMMA is an alternative to Polycarbonates when strength, flexural strength and transparency are more important than impact resistance, chemical resistance and heat resistance.
Because it is transparent and durable, PMMA is a versatile material and is used in a wide range of areas and applications. It produces car reflectors and rear lights, spectacle lenses, window panels, light plates, monitor screens, protective equipment, aquariums, etc. Due to its characteristics, the polymer is used in medicine (contact lenses, implants, etc.), dentistry (dentures, artificial teeth, etc.) and in the cosmetics industry.
This type of material, also known as acetal, polyacetal and polyformaldehyde, is a thermoplastic used mainly in the production of parts that require specific chemical and physical attention to the parameters of the products.
POM is characterized by high strength, hardness, high wear resistance and density and the two most common processing methods are extrusion and molding. Polyoxymethylene is widely used in automotive and consumer electronics for the manufacture of gears, ball bearings, fasteners, locking systems, spectacle frames, connectors and more. In addition, it is used in products for the food industry, medical industry, textile industry and others.
This type of material is a thermoplastic polymer that is used as an insulator in the electrical and electronics industries. PBT is solvent resistant, shrinks very little during molding, it is mechanically strong, heat resistant and can be treated with flame retardants to make it non-flammable. PBT is closely related to other thermoplastic polyesters. Compared to PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate), PBT has slightly lower strength and hardness, slightly better impact resistance and slightly lower glass transition temperature. Polybutylene terephthalate is used in electrical engineering, but also in the automotive industry as plug connectors and in the households, for example in showers or irons. It is also processed into toothbrushes fibres, false eyelashes and is used in the keyboards of some high-end computer keyboards, as the texture is highly resistant to wear and discoloration. PBT can also be made into yarn - similar to Lycra used for production of sportswear and equipment.
This type of material is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate bonds. Most polyurethanes are thermosetting polymers that do not melt when heated. Polyurethanes are used in the production of high-resistance foam seats, rigid foam insulation panels, microcellular foam seals, durable elastomeric wheels and tires (for trains, escalators, shopping carts, elevators, skateboard wheels, etc.), bushings for car suspension, polymer mixtures for flower pots, high-performance adhesives, surface coatings, synthetic fibers, carpet mats, hard plastic parts (eg for electronic tools), condoms and hoses. In 2007, the global consumption of polyurethane raw materials was over 12 million metric tons, the regular annual growth rate is about 5%. Revenues generated by PUR in the global market are expected to grow to approximately $ 75 billion by 2022.
This type of material is a highly elastic polymer obtained from the sap of special plants or artificially synthesized. Rubber can be both natural and synthetic, and due to their similar properties they are successfully mixed for the purposes of various tire industries.
In its pure form, this type of material is a transparent, relatively strong, hard, substantially inert and biologically inactive material that can be formed with a very smooth impermeable surface. In everyday life, glass is known as the material from which windows or glass bottles are made of and which consists mainly of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and quartz sand. The glass can be transparent and flat or have other shapes and colors. The standard definition for glass is a solid material formed by rapid cooling of a melt. One of the most obvious qualities of ordinary glass is being transparent to visible light. The transparency is due to the absence of atomic transition states in the visible light spectrum and that this glass is homogeneous on all scales greater than the approximate wavelength of visible light. Glass can be made so immaculate that hundreds of kilometers of glass will remain transparent to infrared waves in fiber optic cables. As glass is strong and non-reactive, it is a very useful material. Many objects from the household are made of glass, including cups and bottles, light bulbs, mirrors, screen tubes on computer monitors and televisions, windows, etc. Glass is also used in laboratories, biology, physics and many other fields - flasks, test tubes, lenses and other laboratory equipment.
The wood or timber is extracted from the stems and branches of trees and other woody plants. The wood has good mechanical and strength properties, its tissue supports the plants, allowing them to stand upright and reach significant sizes. It is a natural composite in which the cellulose fibers have good tensile strength and the binding lignin is resistant to pressure. These properties make wood an extremely suitable material for the manufacture of various structures in the furniture and construction industry. Wood that has a damaged structure and it is turned into fibers is called pulp. Pulp can be then processed into paper. The total amount of timber on Earth is estimated at about 1 trillion tons, and its growth is about 10 billion tons per year. Its characteristics are divided into soft and hard wood, an indicator of its quality is the density. The density of the wood is determined by many factors related to the growth and physiology of the wood. These include age, diameter, height, radial growth, geographical location and local conditions, care for the tree and the source of the seeds. Density variations in different parts of the same tree are often similar and even greater than between different trees. Wood is widely used as a material for buildings construction, furniture, vessels, musical instruments, weapons and more. It is widely used for the production of products for subsequent recycling such as crates, grills, crates, pallets, etc. Wood is also used as fuel - firewood, lighters, pellets for fireplaces and more.
Textile or knitwear is a collective name for all products made by knitting, weaving or pressing various natural, artificial or synthetic fibers. When the finished product is a thin material, it is called a fabric. Textiles are both a final product and a raw material for other industries. Products with textile are the following - clothes, shoes, furniture, curtains, drapes, sheets, pillowcases, carpets, rugs and many others. Textiles play a big role in the artificial leather production. Different types of processing are applied in the production of textile fabrics. In the past, textiles were produced only from natural (animal and vegetable) fibers, and after industrialization, artificial and synthetic fibers were widely used in the production as an additive or as a main content.
Textiles of animal origin - wool, silk, cotton, linen, jute, etc.
Textiles of synthetic origin - polyester, polyamide, lycra, elastane, microfiber and others.
Metals are a group of 80 chemical elements, widely seen around us, most often as a type of ores, oxides, sulfides and carbonates. From ancient times they are extracted and actively used by mankind as materials with universal application. A curious fact is that about 3% of the human body consists of metals! Metals are solids, except mercury with high electrical and thermal conductivity and ductility. They also have a high density and a high melting point, but some metals can melt on an ordinary heat, such as lead and tin. The mere fact that metals are good conductors of electricity is because of the presence of acting electrons that move under the action of the electric field.The best electrical conductors are silver, copper, gold and aluminum. The smooth surface of metals reflects most light, widely known as metallic luster.
Another characteristic of metals is their ability to dissolve or bond to each other, resulting in alloys. Alloys are complex metals formed by melting and mixing in a liquid state, two or more metals. There are also alloys between metals and nonmetals (for example, steel and cast iron are alloys of iron with carbon). With technological development, we can obtain alloys also in the solid state.
The main mechanical characteristic of metals is strength, which is why they are widely used in any field of heavy and light industry - construction, mechanical engineering, metallurgy, etc.
Metals are classified into several main groups:
Currently, the recycling of metals and their alloys is extremely developed worldwide. Melting and re-casting process billions of tons of scrap metals, which are then reused as usable parts and products.